Cardiac Anatomy
Cardiac Anatomy

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- cardiac embryology - embryologically, the heart forms from a muscular blood vessel at the nexus of arterial and venous systems, which folds on itself, develops valves, and completes division int o four chambers by growth of septae between the atria and ventricles - cardiovascular system develops early because embryo becomes too large to be sustained only by diffusion through the in terstitial spaces of its tissues ◄ 17 days ► ▼ fusion of pair ed heart tubes into single midline heart tube, ◄ in cardiogenic area mesoderm (rostral to the prochordal plate) ◄ paired aortae, along notochord in medial/dorsal mesoderm ◄ paired umbilical veins in lateral/ventral mesoderm angiogenic clusters ► (blood islands) in yolk sac wall at sides of this whole mount specimen - eighteen days - ‘hemangioblasts’ differentiate from mesodermal cells in the wall of yolk sac, creatin g angiogenic clusters, also called “blood islands” - hematopoietic stem cells at center of “blood islands” - endothelial stem cells at periphery of “blood islands” - paired ‘heart tubes’ form in the cardiogenic area - cardiogenic area is derived from mesoderm, rostral to the prochordal plate (future buccopharyngeal membrane), which is rostral to the notochord - heart tubes fuse into single midline vessel as the trilam inar embryo folds into three dimensions, folding the heart tube into the cervicothoracic region, with paired ventral aortae exiting rostrally and recurving back as paired dorsal aortae, and with venous sinus venosus entering heart caudally ©