Vascular System
Vascular System

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- general concepts of the blood vasc ular system - closed loop (unlike lymphatic vascular system): - average time for a blood cell to circulate once around the closed loop of systemic vascular system is about one minute - cardiac output (heart rate X strok e volume) is approximately one total vascular blood volume per minute (4.5 L/min) veins → right heart → pulmonary arteries ↑ ↓ venules pulmonary arterioles ↑ ↓ body capillaries pulmonary capillaries ↑ ↓ arterioles pulmonary venules ↑ ↓ arteries ← left heart ← pulmonary veins - both blood ve ssel size and type of vessel wall correspond with the sequence of order of the vessel from or to the heart - examples: elastic arteries : aorta, brachiocephalic, carotid, subclavian muscular arteries : arter ies to muscles and viscera arterioles : smallest, with muscle in wall, inside viscera - classification of blood vessels based on sequence of order from or to the heart → heart → → large elastic arteries → → medium - size muscular arteries → → arteries → small arteries → → arterioles → → capillaries → → venules → → network of venules to veins → → medium - size collecting veins → → large rese rvoir veins → → heart → © - capillaries are exchange vessels between blood and tissues for gases and nutrients by diffusion , and blood cells by diapedesis - some organs have capillaries with endothelium with special features that either enhance or diminish the exchange of larger molecules and cells - examples: - endoth elial cells with transcellular pores between endothelial inside and outside, i.e. some endocrine glands - endothelium of endothelial cells not attached to each other (‘incomplete’ endothelium), i.e. splenic sin usoids